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The Hebior Mammoth (continued)

The bones of the Hebior mammoth were discovered in two adjacent areas. The main cluster occupied the bottom of the ancient pond. A second cluster, of butchered bones of the right foreleg, were a short distance away, up the pond bank.

The Butchers' Tools
Chipped-stone tools made of chert were found around and under the mammoth's bones. These along with cut marks on the bones of the right leg indicated butchering activities.

One stone knife (1-1) was found next to a pile of ribs and vertebrae. A second stone knife (1-2) was located in another cluster of bones. A flake (1-3) was found under the pelvis, and a dolomite chopper (1-4) was nearby.

Carnivore Marks
A large carnivore, possible the dire wolf, Canis dirus, might have made the teeth marks on the Hebior mammoth's right ulna, the lower foreleg. A large tooth furrow is also visible on the lower end of the bone. In addition the beast is believed to have gnawed off the end of the bone.

ulna displaying carnivore marks

Marks of Butchering
As the mammoth lay on its left side, the right foreleg was removed and transported up the side of the depression. Here it was skinned, disarticulated, and the meat removed. The foot would have been of special interest because of its meaty pad.

foreleg displaying marks of butchering

Chipped-stone tools left marks on the bone as they cut through joints and removed meat. The shaft of the humerus and several toe bones also show marks characteristic of cutting.

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